Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
BOOK II: ANALYTIC OF PRINCIPLES
Chapter 2: SYSTEM OF ALL PRINCIPLES OF PURE UNDERSTANDING
Section 3A) First Analogy: Principle of Permanence of Substance (p. 212)
In all change of appearances substance is permanent; its quantum in
nature is neither increased nor diminished.
THEREFORE: The substratum of all that is real is substance. It is the permanent in relation to which alone all time-relations of appearances can be determined.
- All appearances are in time. Time is the substratum in which (alone) coexistence or succession can be represented.
- Time itself cannot be perceived. Therefore there must be in the objects perceived the substratum which represents time in general.
Back to Section 3: Systematic Representation Of All Synthetic Principles Of Pure Understanding
- Our apprehension of the manifold of appearances is always successive, i.e. always changing. We require an underlying ground which exists at all times.
- It is only in the permanent that relations of time are possible. Permanence expresses time in general.
- Accidents: The determinations of substance, i.e. special ways it exists.
- Inherence: a special kind of existence of the real in substance.
- i.e. motion as an accident of matter.
- In distinction from subsistence: the existence of substance.
- Alteration: all that alters persists, only its state changes.
- Grounded on recognition of permanence.
- Can be perceived only in substances.
- Coming-to-be is not alteration, it is absolute and can never be a possible perception.
Forward to the Second Analogy:Principle of Succession in Time in Accordance with the Laws of Causality
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